Installing new fence postsMany years ago I had a fence that needed to be repaired. I got a recommendation for a fence repair man from a friend and had him come out to take a look. He said the panels between the posts were fine and did not need to be replaced, I just needed new posts. He quoted me a price for installing new fence posts that seemed quite reasonable, and I accepted his bid.
A few days later he came back to do the job. After he had been out there working for a while, I went out to take a look. I was surprised when I saw how he had installed the new fence posts. He had not removed the old posts and put new posts in their places, as I had assumed; instead, he simply planted a new post next to each old post and strapped them together. I was flabbergasted, and complained to him that my expectation was that he was going to take out the old posts and replace them with new posts. He was nonplussed. "I told you I would install new posts," he said. "Taking out the old posts would be way more work, and I would have to charge you more."
Well, he had me: he had indeed said only that he would install new posts. I was the one who assumed he would take out the old posts. I grumbled, paid him extra to replace a few of the old posts where it was particularly troublesome to have an extra post sticking out, and had the whole fence replaced the right way a few years later.
Keep using gmailOne of the startups at which I worked used gmail and was acquired by a large company that used Exchange. Concerned about the possibility of having to move to what we felt was a worse system, we asked what would happen with email. We were relieved when they said we could keep using gmail.
On the very first day that we were officially part of the new company, we were all told that we now had Exchange email accounts. "Hey!," we said, "you told us we could keep our gmail accounts." "Yes, you can," came the response, "but you also need to have an Exchange account for all official company email."
This was, of course, not what we had expected when we asked if we could keep our gmail accounts. But, as with the new fence posts, they had in fact kept their word and let us keep our gmail accounts; it was we who assumed that that would continue to be our only email account.
Everything under SCCSAt one of the places I worked, we hired a contractor to work on a subsystem. At one point we became concerned about how he was managing his source code, so we asked how he was doing that. "Everything is under sccs," he said. (This was well before the days of git, subversion, cvs, or even rcs; at the time, sccs (Source Code Control System) was what most people in our industry were using.) When he finally delivered the source code to us, we were annoyed to discover that he simply had a directory named "sccs", and all of his source code was contained in that directory; there was in fact no versioning or history.
Once again, this was not what we had expected. When he said "sccs" we assumed he was talking about the source code control system, when in fact he was just referring to a directory name; and when he said "under" we assumed he meant "managed by", when in fact he just meant "contained in."
A new and improved version of AndroidMy first smart phone was an Android phone running version 2.2. I watched as the newer versions of Android came out, filled with interesting new features. Finally, an over-the-air update was available for my phone. I eagerly updated and started playing with the new features. My first disappointment was with the new and definitely not improved performance: my phone was slow and laggy, and it no longer lasted even one day on a full charge.
I was even more dismayed to discover that they had removed USB Mass Storage Mode (MSC or UMS) and replaced it with a significantly less functional alternative, MTP (Media Transfer Protocol). In my case, it was completely non-functional for my use, because my home desktop machine was running Linux, and at the time there was not a working Linux driver for MTP mode.
I was, as you might expect, pretty ticked off. I had assumed without thinking about it that they would not remove a significant feature from a new version of the software, but they never said that.
Alternate InterpretationsAsk yourself: when reading the above anecdotes, did you realize in advance of the denouement what the problem would be for all of them? If it had been you, would you have made the same assumptions as I did?
Sometimes something seems so obvious to us that it does not even cross our minds that there might be an alternate interpretation.
I don't think it is possible for us to see these alternative interpretations in every case; often it is something with which we have had no experience, so could not be expected to know. We do, of course, sometimes consider alternative interpretations. In the future, if someone tells me they will install new fence posts, I will be sure to ask for more details. But we have to make assumptions as we deal with the world every day. If we examined every statement and every experience for alternative interpretations, that would consume all of our time, and we would not have any time left to pursue new thoughts. We learn to make instant and unconscious judgment calls: as long as what we hear and see has a high enough probability of an unambiguous interpretation, the possibility that there is an alternate interpretation does not bubble up to our conscious minds. Overall this is a very effective strategy that lets us focus our mental energies on situations where an unusual outcome is more likely. But this does mean that every once in a while we will miss something, with undesired results.
Going beyond obviousI have already given my recommendation to State The Obvious. However, as you can see from the above anecdotes, this is not always enough. But what else can we do?
If you consider the anecdotes above, you might notice that, in most of them, by the time I realized that I had made an incorrect assumption, the deed was done and I was stuck with an undesired result. But the fence post story was a little different: in that case, I checked up on the work before it was done. Because I discovered the problem while it was happening, I was able to ask for changes and get a result that was closer to what I wanted.
Software DevelopmentNot all of my blog posts are about software development, but in this case the application is obvious. Well, it seems obvious to me, but just in case it is not obvious to everyone, I will follow my own advice and explain in detail.
In the traditional waterfall process, a complete and detailed specification of the desired system is created before doing any of the implementation work. Once that spec is done, the system is built to match it. But, as we have seen from the anecdotes above, even a very simple spec, such as "install new fence posts", might be interpreted in a bizarre way that still matches the letter of the specification. In this case, the result might be something that arguably matches what was specified, but is not what was wanted.
Based on my personal experience and anecdotes I have heard from others, I believe that it is very difficult to write a good spec for something new, and impossible to write a spec that can not be interpreted by somebody in some bizarre way that satisfies the spec but is not the desired result.
Given that we can't guarantee that we can write a spec that will not be misinterpreted, what is the alternative? I think the only alternative is to do what I did in the fence-post case: check up on the work and make corrections along the way. This is embodied in a couple of the value statements in The Agile Manifesto: "Customer collaboration over contract negotiation" and "Responding to change over following a plan".
If you are asking someone to create something that is very similar to things that have been created before, and through previous common experience there is already a shared vocabulary sufficient to describe how the desired result compares to those previous creations, then you can perhaps write a spec that will get you what you want. The closer the new thing is to those previously created things, the easier that will be. But in software development, where the goal is often specifically to create something novel, this is particularly difficult. In that situation, I think that creating and then relying solely on a detailed spec is less likely to result in a satisfactory outcome; I believe an agreement on direction and major points, followed by keeping a close eye on progress, paying particular attention when something is being done for the first time, is the key to good results.
Writing a SpecI'm not saying don't write a spec. I'm saying you need to recognize that a spec won't take you all the way, and a poorly written spec can hinder your progress. Writing a spec is like looking at a map and planning your route: often necessary but seldom sufficient. You need to be prepared for construction closures, blocking accidents, or even additional interesting sights you might decide to see along the way. For any of these diversions, you will need to reexamine your route in the middle of the trip and select an alternative. For a short trip, you might not run into any such problems and thus not need to modify your route, but the longer the journey the more likely that at some point you will need or want to deviate from your original route.
If you are familiar with the roads and have a clear destination, you might be able to dispense with the initial route planning completely: just head in the right direction and follow the signs. Or if you are on a discovery road trip and don't have a specific destination, then heading out without a planned route is fine. In most cases, though, some level of advance route planning will save time. You just need to stay agile and be prepared to change your route along the way.